It is one of the great tragedies of the Indian freedom movement that the spirit of Hindu Muslim unity and cooperation between Congress and the Muslim League have not passed the test of subsequent developments. Why did this happen? One of the main reasons for this is that the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms announced by the British government in 1919 did not at all meet the essential requirements of the Lucknow Pact. Instead of putting the government on its common demands, the leaders of Congress and the Muslim League were led to react – with ambiguous voices – to the provisions of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. The Lucknow Pact also helped to establish cordial relations between the two leading groups in the Indian National Congress – the “extremist” faction led by the Lal Bal Pal trio (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal) and the “moderate” faction of Gopal Krishna Gokhale until his death in 1915, who was later represented by Gandhi.  Although 20 years later, Jinnah supported his own nation for Muslims, he was a member of Congress and the Muslim League in 1916, he was a collaborator of Tilak and was celebrated as an “ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity”.  The Lucknow agreement took a new turn with the change in political doctrine of the Muslim League. The admission of Quaid-e-Azam into the Muslim League was a historic event that gave a new direction to the political struggle of the Muslim League. Autonomy For India, the Muslim League and Congress have come closer. Leaders on both sides agreed that they should work together to get the British to accept their demands. They recognized that the objectives could be achieved if the two large Indian communities forgot their differences on petty issues and came together to agree on important national issues. The political proximity had taken a happy turn and the ground was smoothed for the esteemed Hindu unity of Muslims.
The Lucknow Pact is considered an important event in India`s political history. It is considered a flood marked by Hindu Muslim unity. It was the first and last pact signed between Congress and the Muslim League. When we reflect on these issues, we begin to realize that the greatest triumph of Tilak`s life lies in what turned out to be a failure – the Lucknow Pact. The Tilak-Jinnah pact failed, but not his mind. Indeed, this unique spirit can contribute to achieving two important challenges facing India and Pakistan: Hindu-Muslim harmonisation and Indo-Pakistan normalization. If we look back at India`s freedom movement, we see two important milestones when Hindu-Muslim cooperation reaches its peak. One of them was the War of Independence of 1857, when the two groups fought side by side against the “Company Rule” – the colonial advances of the East India Company – from Peshawar to Dhaka. The other was the Lucknow Pact between Congress and the Muslim League in December 1916, whose principal architects were Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Tilak`s arguments, however, carried the day for two reasons. First, he was the most religious among all Hindu leaders in Congress and also the most learned in the Vedos. His Hindu references could therefore not be questioned.
Second, in the early years of his public life, he was not really considered a friend of Muslims. That is why the Muslim community welcomed what it saw as a real change in their thinking. It is interesting to note that it was also a volte face for Jinnah, because he was previously opposed to separate voters for Muslims. There is another reason why the Lucknow pact has become a non-departure. After 1916, Tilak did not live long enough to give its contents a practical form.